Definition of Formulae

In Roman law, when the legis actiones were proved to be inconvenient, a mode of procedure called "per formulas” (i.e., by means of formulae), was gradually introduced, and eventually the legis actiones were abolished by the Lex AEbutia, B.C. 164, excepting in a very few exceptional matters. The formulae were four in number, namely: (1) The Demonstratio, wherein the plaintiff stated, i.e., showed, the facts out of which his claim arose; (2) the Intentio, where he made his claim against the defendant; (3) the Adjudicatio, wherein the judex was directed to assign or adjudicate the property or any portion or portions thereof according to the rights of the parties; and (4) the Condemnatio, in which the judex was authorized and directed to condemn or to acquit according as the facts were or were not proved. These formulae were obtained from the magistrate (in jure) and were thereafter proceeded with before the judex (in judicio).

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