Definition of Exchequer

That department of the English government which has charge of the collection of the national revenue; the treasury department.

It is said to have been so named from the chequered cloth, resembling a chessboard, which anciently covered the table there, and on which, when certain of the king’s accounts were made up, the sums were marked and scored with counters. 3 Bl. Comm. 44.

For “Court of Exchequer” and “Court of Exchequer Chamber,” see those titles.

That's the definition of Exchequer in Black's Law Dictionary 6th Edition. Courtesy of Cekhukum.com.